Cari Ebbert wants to be clear. After five years as an apprentice and 12 years as a union journey-level electrician, she hasn't confronted anything like the harassment and abuse that Donna Hammond had to deal with 35 years ago, or electrical line workers still encounter today.

But full equality for women trying to forge careers as electricians is still a ways away, according to Ebbert, who lives in North Portland. "We have exchanged outright misogyny and sexism for covert discrimination," she says. "There's less of it that's visible, but it's always just under the surface."